- April 1, 2014 at 2:12 am #117541
dvjorgeParticipantTopics: 283Replies: 1368
A large number of modern drugs have been derived from natural sources including microorganisms and
their metabolites. Over the last century, a number of vital drugs have been developed from natural products
(Satyajit et al. 2006). Natural products can contribute to the search for new drugs in many ways. They can
contribute by providing a new drug or it can provide building blocks to synthesize complex molecules or it
could help indicate new modes of pharmacological action that allow synthesis of novel drugs (Satyajit et al.
2006). Although, C. albicans is the causal agent of opportunistic infections in humans the most common being
oral and vaginal infections. Under normal circumstances this yeast lives in the human mouth and digestive tract
in 80% of the human population with no harmful effects. However, overgrowth results in candidiasis which is
often observed in immuno-compromised individuals such as HIV-positive patients.
Probiotic microorganisms are thought to counteract
disturbances and thereby reduce the risk of colonization
pathogenic bacteria (Rosenfeldt et al., 2004; Sullivan and Nord 2002). Studies on strains of microorganisms
in probiotic dietary supplements have demonstrated that several
strains produce antimicrobial substances
such as organic acids,
bacteriocins and peptides.
The beneficial properties of strains of some Saccharomyces spp. are well documented (Rodrigues et al.
2000; Martins et al., 2005). In addition to their nutritive value (e.g. provision of vitamins of the B group),
probiotic yeasts are generally resistant to gastrointestinal passage and are resistant to most antibiotics. Yeast
preparations have also been successfully applied, in combination with antibiotics, to treat Clostridium difficile –
related diarrhoea commonly known as antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Probiotic Saccharomyces spp. may also
help to re-establish a normal gut function after long term antibiotic therapy (Roos et al., 2001; McFarland et al.,
1994). Both animal studies and in vitro assays have shown that S. boulardii may have a protective effect and
specific activities against various enteric pathogens (Brandão et al., 1998). Saccharomyces spp. stimulate serum
IgA production and the phagocytic system of gnotobiotic mice (Rodrigues et al., 2000). These probiotic yeasts
may also have efficacy in the prevention of Traveler’s diarrhoea.
The genus Saccharomyces has 16 species, including S. cerevisiae and S. boulardii; of which two, S.
cerevisiae and S. boulardii, are described in the literature as containing biotherapeutic agents. These strains have
been reported to be efficacious in the prevention or recurrence of different types of diarrhoea and colitis in
humans (Surawicz et al., 1989). S. cerevisiae and S. boulardii, have been also reported to be effective in the
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